We come across hundreds of end-products with aroma in our daily life. This aroma results from natural or synthetic fragrance ingredients used in making products. Many also know that the manufacturers create synthetic fragrances in the lab and produce natural aromatic substances from botanicals. The knowledge of characteristics of aromatic substances besides cost components is critical for end-product manufacturers.
The following aromatic substances are popular among cosmetics, perfume, toiletry, and other manufacturers and aromatherapists.
Essential Oils – Aromatic liquids derived from leaves, flowers, stems, grass, bark, wood, resin, and fruit rinds by steam distillation or cold press
Absolute Oils – Thick and darker oils extracted from delicate flowers and botanicals by solvent extraction
Spice Oils – Essential oils obtained by distilling the ground spices
Hydrosols – Natural waters from plant parts derived by hydrodistillation or steam distillation
Indian Attars – Indian perfume oils prepared by maturing herbs, flowers, and other natural ingredients in sandalwood oil
Botanicals extracts – Liquids and powders derived from fruits, flowers, roots, leaves, berries, and other plant parts
Synthetic or Fragrance Oils – Complex combinations of multiple aroma chemicals and compounds that exude a uniform scent. They mimic the fragrance of fresh strawberries, chocolate, wet clay, etc.
Natural Identical Essential Oils – Thoughtful blends of natural constituents and synthetic aroma chemicals offering superior aroma and consistency (but not therapeutic value).
Concrete – Waxy or resinous solids or thick oily liquids from raw botanical material derived by hydrocarbon solvent extraction.
Pomade – Oily and sticky solids obtained from animal fats by enfleurage process
Tincture – Thin liquids derived by soaking raw botanical or animal materials in ethanol.
Fragrance Components for Perfumes
Perfume makers generally use absolutes, concretes, essential oils, pomades, and tinctures. Many users do not know much about concretes, pomades, and tinctures.
Perfume compositions are a vital part of luxury goods, food service, and multiple household chemical manufacturing industries. Perfume makers use primary scents (such as jasmine), modifiers (such as fruit esters), blenders for a smooth transition between different fragrance layers, and fixatives (such as resinous, woody, or amber bases). Most perfumers use woody, resinous, or spice oils as fixatives and prefer floral absolutes or essential oils as primary scents.
Aromaaz International offers a variety of essential oils with woody, spicy, and resinous nuances. The perfume makers use floral or citrus essential oils, such as ylang-ylang, petitgrain, bitter orange, lemongrass, myrtle, chamomile, and others for fruity esters. Some employ readymade aroma chemicals such as linalool natural and linalyl acetate natural to add fruity esters in formulations.
Perfumers also mix a small amount of tincture (such as benzoin) to create an alcohol or spirit base. Some use benzoin absolute, patchouli, vanilla, or birch tar essential oils in place of the tincture. Some French perfumers have experimented with Indian attars and created exquisite perfume blends.
Fragrance Components for Cosmetics
Though dermal benefits are critical in a cosmetic formulation, the fragrance component overrides the selection of cosmetics. Besides, fragrance plays a crucial role in masking unpleasant smells arising from fatty acids or oils used as ingredients in cosmetics. Essential oils are unanimously preferred aromatic substances used in cosmetics.
They also possess therapeutic properties and contribute to the overall performance of the end product. Their availability, aroma, quality, and rates depend on seasonal factors. Popular essential oils in skincare are tea tree, rosemary, sandalwood, cardamom, citrus, lavender, and chamomile.
Many cosmetic manufacturers prefer to use absolutes (such as jasmine, rose, tuberose, and lotus) in preparations to capture botanical aromas excellently. Some use well-designed fragrance oils because of their lower cost, consistency, and vast selections. They want to avoid fluctuations in the aroma and quality of the end product. Aroma chemicals also offer the same for cosmetic formulations.
Botanical extracts (including fruits) available in liquid or powdered form bring their characteristic aromas and wellness properties and change the consistency of products. Cosmetic manufacturers can pick liquid botanical extract to make the formulation thin and powder extracts to thicken the end product. The widely used botanical extracts include liquid aloe vera, green tea, lavender, licorice, tea tree, lemon in liquids, and powdered sea buckthorn, grapeseed, olive leaf, rosehip, and chamomile.
Fragrance Components for Toiletries
Toiletries are articles used to clean the body, hair, and mouth and typically include body wash, soaps, hand washes, shampoo, toothpaste, and conditioners. Natural essential oils and synthetic oils are fragrant ingredients for soaps, shower gels, and hand washes. The hair care formulations contain lavender, rose, peppermint, tea tree, lemon, and other essential oils or liquid botanical extracts such as arnica, aloe vera, green tea, chamomile, olive leaf, and ashwagandha.
Technical and Other Considerations While Picking Fragrance Components
Fragrance substances interact with other ingredients in an end formulation. They can cause discoloration or an unpleasant aroma, unexpected changes due to sunlight, humidity, or temperature, and unstable shelf-life triggering side effects or allergies. The manufacturers need to pick aromatic substances that are safe, stable, and compatible throughout the product lifespan. The following are the essential considerations in their selection.
pH factor of formulation (soaps, creams, moisturizers, shampoos, and deo sprays) – Highly acidic or alkaline formulations affect fragrance stability.
The base color of formulation – Dark color of the fragrance substance changes the color of the formulation, so the hue of the fragrance substance should be as per the desired color of the end product.
Optimum flashpoint (temperature) – The temperature of any preparation should match the flashpoint of fragrance to prevent evaporation and achieve optimum.
Packaging material – The fragrance oils or essential oils may react to the walls of plastic containers or may photodegrade when used in transparent packaging material under sunlight, adversely affecting the content of the end product.
Trial test – Manufacturers should perform a trial sample test under high temperatures and alternating conditions to confirm the stability of the end product.
Cost – Natural essential oils are costly aroma prepositions with therapeutic properties. Their quality may vary from batch to batch, while synthetic fragrance oils are affordable and offer a consistent aroma. Guidelines for usage rates – Synthetic oil or essential oil manufacturers provide guidelines on the proportion of aromatic substances/oils in formulations per user age group. End-product manufacturers should keep this in mind.
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